by Shri Lakshminarayan Aithal
लोकवेदेषु तदनुकूलाचरणं तद्विरोधिषूदासीनता ।। 11 ।।
11.Among worldly and Vedic activities, performing only those (activities) that are favorable to uniqueness (अनन्यता) is indifference to unfavorable (activities).
34. Giving up of worldly and Vedic activities – these words have the meaning that in all ways giving up of actions. But, theists (नास्तिकाः) have given up all actions; by that giving up, the restraint has not taken place at all. Therefore, the meaning of ‘ giving up of worldly and Vedic actions’ – should be unraveled further. The restraint of desire (कामनिरोध) of a devotee is not merely giving up of activities. Two parts are included in that restraint. Among the two – not having difference (अनन्यता) is the first part; and, indifference (उदासीनता ) is the second part. The tenth aphorism tells that what is not having difference with God. Not having difference
means giving up of all shelters and approaching only God for protection itself is not having difference (अनन्यता).
Those who are in this worldly illusion (संसार) try to obtain anything desired by depending upon either an object, or a man, or a deity. Poor who, want money depend upon rich people. Suffering patients have faith in doctors; those who are troubled by disputes have faith in lawyers; some people for their happy life depend upon government officers; and, a few others, for the sake of obtaining happiness of the other world, depend upon certain deities; etc; etc. But, the Devotee doesn’t depend upon anyone : -
नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन । न चास्य सर्वभूतेषु कश्चिदर्थव्यपाश्रयः ।। गी. 3-18.
As the Lord has told : in order to obtain the desired either the Knowledge of Reality of God or uniform exercise of devotion – the devotee doesn’t perform any action; and , in order to remove the befallen difficulties he doesn’t give up any action. Among living beings right from the Brahman to the stump of grass, he doesn’t depend upon anyone in order either to obtain anything desired or to avoid anything unwished. This अनन्यता has the form of giving up of other shelters.
तद्विरोधिषूदासीनता35. Yet, तद्विरोधिषूदासीनता part of 9th aphorism is to be unraveled. The word तद्विरोधिषु can be analyzed in to two ways. The first analysis - sentence (विग्रहवाक्य) is this : तस्य भगवतः प्रतिकूलानि यानि तेषु = in all those things that are against to God; the second analytical sentence is this : तदनन्यतायाः प्रतिकूलानि यानि, तेषु = in all those things that are
impediments to uniqueness (अनन्यता). Among the two alternatives, the first one doesn’t fit here; because, God doesn’t have anything either favorable or adverse.
समोsहं सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योsस्ति न प्रियः । ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्यहम् ।। गी. 9-29.
The Lord says : ‘I don’t have either enemies or friends; I am impartial one to all. Those who worship Me with devotion dwell in Me and I in them.’ Therefore, the one, in order to obtain the wished thing or to avoid the unwished one without depending upon any object or a living being that are impediments to that uniqueness of God; and, performing only such worldly and Vedic activities that are favorable to that uniqueness; and, not bringing other activities to the mind is the indifference regarding these impediments – thus it is explained in the 11th aphorism.
The Lord speaks to अर्जुन –
यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् । यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ।। गी. 9-27.
In this verse, the words like : यत्करोषि = whatever you do, यदश्नासि = whatever you eat – tell the worldly activities. While conducting worldly activities, without any resolution only essential activities that ought to be done should be conducted; as the result of the action obtained happiness and distress should be experienced without any retaliation; thus occurred doer-ship and enjoyer-ship also, without attachment should be offered to God – in this manner, worldly activities should be conducted; similarly, the activities like : sacrifice, donation and penance should be offered to God. If these activities are conducted so, you will attain Me :-
शुभाशुभफलैरेवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः । संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तो मामुपैष्यसि ।। गी. 9-28.
According to this verse, fruits like obtaining of wished thing and removal of unwished thing don’t occur; therefore, the performer of action is not bound by it. From the view point of the performer, it is told that the glory of the योग of asceticism (संन्यासयोग) which is offered to God, the performer is liberated from the bondage of action; after his death he obtains only God. At present, the devotee of God should do good :-
सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते । अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ।। गी. 18-20.
[In all living beings exists only One Imperishable Principle of God without any division; know that this Knowledge is good (सात्त्विक ) ].
मुक्तसङ्गोsनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः । सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ।। गी. 18-26.
[ He is the gentle doer (सात्त्विककर्ता) who doesn’t have either association or egoism; he without allowing his body and organs to stoop down – becomes active; whether the fruit is achieved or not, he performs an action without any excitement because of only one reason : that is mentioned in the scripture.] The devotee of God is the gentle doer who has the gentle knowledge; he performs only such worldly actions that are favorable to the uniqueness with God; therefore, this is called : तद्विरोधिषूदासीनता – indifference to unfavorable activities. Therefore, it is properly told that his devotion is the restraint of desires.
Here, we have a doubt : In the 8th aphorism, it is told that the restraint is to give up all worldly and Vedic activities; and, here, it is told that restraint is to perform activities that are favorable to the uniqueness; do these statements not oppose each other ?Answer : No. For, the devotee always engrosses only in the contemplation of God. We have told in the view of reality that he doesn’t have either doer-ship or enjoyer-ship. Here, it is told that the devotee, according to his class and order (वर्णाश्रम) performs actions. The devotee is engrossed in the deep meditation, when he comes out of it, in order to guide people, he performs actions befitting to his class and order without having either doer-ship or enjoyer-ship. All of his actions become divine :-
ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्महविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् । ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ।। गी. 4-24.
According to this verse, if the wise is a house – holder (गृहस्थ) all of his actions like sacrifice, etc. becoming free from expedient and fruit – are seen by him as only full of God. Similarly, if the devotee exists in any one of the orders (आश्रम) : celibate (ब्रह्मचर्य), hermit (वानप्रस्थ), ascetic (संन्यास) – he performs actions that are not against to the scriptures. (This is clarified in the following aphorisms). Therefore, in the glance of conduct, though he performs an action, that is neither motivated by desire, nor done through the intelligence of doer-ship. Such being the case, there is no opposition at all