by Shri Lakshminarayan Aithal
यल्लब्ध्वा पुमान् सिद्धो भवत्यमृतो भवति तृप्तो भवति ।। 4 ।।
4.If the Soul obtains this (Devotion), he becomes Perfect, Immortal and Satisfied.
MEANING OF यत्
14. In Sanskrit, though the भक्ति word is in feminine gender, why यत् the word of neuter gender is used here ? Answer to this question is as follows : In order to emphasize the Immortal Form of Devotion यत् (which) is narrated in the previous aphorism, use (fruit) to the one who obtains this deathless Devotion of the Form of Supreme Love – is clearly mentioned here. Though this fruit is pointed out by the अतः word of the first aphorism, the compiler (सूत्रकार) has the intention of unfolding features of that fruit (फलम्). Those who contemplate this scripture also obtain such fruits; by knowing this, the readers should develop interest in this work; this is the intention of the compiler.
MEANING OF लब्ध्वा
15.A doubt may arise here : The Devotion is of the Form of the Supreme Love and it is the Real Form of the Self itself. The Self need not be obtained. Then, is it right to employ the word लब्ध्वा (if obtained ) ?
Relief : It is true that the Devotion is of the Form of the Self itself. Still, we have mentioned in (2) that in the state of conduct, egoism covers this Form rather as living being in the petty form of ‘ I ‘ is seen by them. Thus, they delude that this form of illusion itself is their real one; hence, these living beings suffer in the worldly life. Therefore, though the Devotion is already with them, it seems as if it is not obtained. In the view of ignorant people who imagine that they are of the form of body, etc. they have to obtain newly their real immortal Form. The condition of the form of love is also not natural for all in their conduct; feelings like love and hatred have become obstacles to have it; by the means like contemplation of God, etc. This obstacle should be eradicated; and the condition of Love should be obtained. Thus, by these two views, too, devotion should be obtained with full of efforts; therefore, the employment of the word लब्ध्वा by the compiler is suitable.
MEANING OF पुमान्
16. There is a possibility of having another doubt : The word पुमान् (man) is used in the aphorism. By seeing this, does it imply that ladies don’t have right in the field of devotion ?
Relief to this doubt is this : Even women have the right to have devotion; this is clarified in the 21st aphorism by giving the illustration of maids of बृन्दावन. It is cleared further that there is no rule that only certain people have authority to exercise devotion. Everyone can follow his own suitable manner of devotion to attain fulfillment. Now, the पुमान् word has the meaning ‘human’. स्युः पुमांसः पञ्चजनाः पुरुषाः पूरूषा नरः (अमर. मनुष्यवर्ग. 1). According to this vocabulary (निघण्टु) though पुमान् and पुरुष words speak only about gents among human beings; these words can also be used to tell a common individual being. According to the view of the scripture, the Self is neither a man nor a woman.
पुमान् स्त्री गौरजा वाजी कुञ्जरो विहगस्तरुः । देहेषु लोकसंज्ञेयं विज्ञेया कर्महेतुषु ।।
पुमान् न देवो न नरो न पशुर्न च पादपः । शरीराकृतिभेदास्तु भूपैते कर्मयोनयः ।।
वि. पु. 2-13-17, 18.
Man, woman, bullock, goat, horse, elephant, bird, tree – all these are given names to the bodies that are formed due to कर्म. A living being (जीव) is neither a deity, nor a man, nor an animal, and nor a tree. These special forms of bodies are caused by कर्म. Therefore, the compiler has no object that the पुमान् word should be used as a man. Its main preaching is this : Only human beings have a special authority to exercise the expedients mentioned in the scripture.
Then, this पुमान् word should be omitted, isn’t it ? Why only मनुष्य (mankind), the famous word is not used ? What is the purpose of employing only this word here ?Now, the compiler has an intention : The पुमान् word tells about ‘man’ as well as ‘mankind’ also; by using that particular word much about men should be told – is indicated here. What is that? In the world, men than women – have more facilities. Therefore, a man engages his mind in reading, writing, arithmetic, material science, etc. to acquire more knowledge; then, he may obtain honor and prizes by exhibiting his knowledge in front of assemblies or that of the government; he may be proud that by earning money, he protects his family; he may feel his greatness by claiming the special right of studying the Vedas and the Science of Reality (वेदान्त); he may behave arrogantly by showing his superiority through his poetic style, etc.; and feeling that everything has come under his subjection, he may desire to display his power of exercising योग and acquiring eight accomplishments (अष्टसिद्धयः); or he may obtain some petty accomplishments by worshipping different deities. Only a man has much opportunity to acquire such useless achievements; it is quite essential to warn him that these fortunes are not permanent to anyone, and that if he obtains the eternal achievement of neither becoming more arrogant nor growing elated, then, he makes his human birth fruitful. In order to remind this पुमान् word is employed here.